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The term "fine art" was coined in 1767 in reference to the arts that were "concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste" (S.O.E.D 1991). The term has been used to refer to a limited number of visual art forms, including painting, sculpture, and printmaking, and is still used by schools, institutes, and other organizations to indicate a traditional perspective on the visual arts, often implying an association with classic or academic art.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but rather the purity of the discipline. This definition tends to exclude visual art forms that could be considered craftwork or applied art, such as textiles. The more recent term "visual art" is widely considered to be a more inclusive and descriptive phrase for today's variety of current art practices, and for the multitude of mediums in which high art is now more widely recognized to occur.
The term is still often used outside of the arts to denote when someone has perfected an activity to a very high level of skill. For example, one might say that "?/span>Pel took football to the level of a fine art."
That fine art is seen as being distinct from the crafts is largely the result of an issue raised in Britain by the conflict between the followers of the Arts and Crafts Movement, including William Morris, and the early modernists, including Virginia Woolf and the Bloomsbury Group. The former sought to bring socialist principles to bear on the arts by including the more commonplace crafts of the masses within the realm of the arts, while the modernists sought to keep artistic endeavour exclusive, esoteric, and elitist.
Today the term is often improperly used to give any artistic discipline an emphasis that implies higher quality.
The Fine Arts
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Art History Timeline?http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/splash.htm)
music. For information on types of music see such articles as absolute music; aleatory music; chamber music; church music; computer music; electronic music; jazz; program music; rock music; serial music; and spiritual. In addition, see entries on the music of various nations and peoples, including African music; Arabian music; Balinese music; Chinese music; Greek music; Hindu music; Japanese music; Javanese music; and Jewish liturgical music. The technical aspects of music, such as theory, notation, and tone, are treated in such general articles as theory and musical notation, and in more specific entries, including counterpoint; harmonic; harmony; key; measure; mode; musicology; note; pitch; polyphony; rhythm; scale; syncopation; tablature; temperament; tonality; tone; transposing instrument; and tuning systems. There are numerous articles on various musical forms, including cantata; concerto; march; nocturne; opera; oratorio; polonaise; sonata; song; and symphony. In addition to such survey articles as concert; conducting; musical instruments; music festivals; orchestra and orchestration, there are separate articles on musical instruments, treated singly, e.g., clarinet; harp; trumpet, or in groups, e.g., reed instrument; stringed instrument. In addition to the entry on voice, there are separate articles on alto; baritone; countertenor; soprano; and tenor. Information on individual composers and performers can be found in biographical entries on composers, e.g. Monteverdi, Claudio; Puccini, Giacomo; and Schubert, Franz Peter; musicians, e.g., Beiderbecke, Bix; Gieseking, Walter; Richter, Sviatoslav; and singers, e.g., Deller, Alfred; Merrill, Robert; Sembrich, Marcella; and Sinatra, Frank.
The Four Books (四書, S?shū) are
The Great Learning, (大學, D?Xu?.
The Doctrine of the Golden Mean (中庸, Zhōng Y鏮g).
The Analects of Confucius (論語, L蠼 Yǔ), a book of pithy sayings attributed to Confucius.
Mencius (孟子, M鋝g Zǐ).
The Five Classics (五經, Wǔ jīng) are
The Classic of Poetry (詩經, Shī Jīng), made up of 305 poems.
The Classic of History (書經, Shū Jīng) contains examples of early Chinese prose.
The Book of Changes or I Ching (易經, Y?Jīng), a manual of divination based on the eight trigrams.
The Classic of Rites (禮記, Lǐ J? describes ancient rites and court ceremonies.
The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋, Chūn Qiū).
The Classic of Music (樂經) is sometime referred to as the sixth classic, but is lost.
The Classic of The Way and its Virtue or Tao Te Ching (道德經, Dao De Jing), attributed to Lao Zi.
The True Classic of Perfect Emptiness, attributed to Lie Zi.
The Classic of Filial Piety (孝經, Xiao Jing)
The Three Character Classic
Other ancient texts
The book of Xun Zi
The Art of War (孙子兵法) by Sun Tzu
Classical Chinese poetry
List of Chinese language poets
Eight Great Literary Masters of the Tang and Song (Tang Dynasty and Song dynasty) 唐宋八大家
Han Yu 韓愈
Liu Zongyuan 柳宗元
Ouyang Xiu 歐陽修
Su Xun 蘇洵
Su Shi 蘇軾
Su Zhe 蘇轍
Wang Anshi 王安石
Zeng Gong 曾鞏
Song Lian (1310-1381)
Liu Ji (1311-1375)
Gui Yiuguang (1506-1571)
Yuan Hongdao ( 1568-1610)
Xu Xiake (1586-1641)
Gao Qi 高启
Zhang Dai 张岱
Tu Long 屠隆
Fang Pao (1668-1749)
Liu Daqui (1698-1779)
Yiao Nai (1731-1815)
Yuan Mu (1716-1798)
Gong Zhizhen (1792-1841)
Wei Yuan (1794-1857)
See List of Chinese language novelists
The Dream of the Red Chamber (红楼梦, also known as A Dream of Red Mansions or The Chronicles of the Stone (石頭記, Sh癃鏧 J?, by 曹雪芹 C￡o Xu￬q￭n
Water Margin (水浒传), also known as All Men Are Brothers and Outlaws of the Marsh), by 施耐庵 Sh￮ N'￢n
The Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三国演义) by 罗狑中 Lu? Guzh?ng
The Journey to the West (西游瑐), also known as Monkey King and Monkey, by 吴承恩 W Ch￩ng'n.
The above 4 classics are often called the Si Da Ming Zhu or the Four Classics.
Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (聊齋志異) by 蒲松齡 P S?ngl￭ng.
Jin Ping Mei (金瓶梅), by 蘭陵笑笑生 L嫕l璯g Xi跢xi跢shēng.
王栔 Wang Tao (1828-1897)
嚴 復 Yan Fu (1853 - 1924)
劉 鶚 Liu E (1857 - 1909)
梁啟超 Liang Qichao (1873-1929)
王 國 維 Wang Guowei (1877 - 1927)
胡适 Hu Shih (1891-1962)
蘇 曼 殊 Su Manshu (1894 - 1918)
魯 迅 Lu Xun (1881 - 1936)
許 地 山 Xu Dishan (1893 - 1941)
叶圣陶 Ye Shengtao (1894-1988)
林語堂 Lin Yutang (1895 - 1976)
茅 盾 Mao Dun (1896 - 1981)
徐 志 摩 Xu Zhimo (1896 - 1936)
郁 達 夫 Yu Dafu (1896 - 1945)
Wang Tongzhao (1897-1957)
郭 沫 若 Guo Moruo (1892 - 1978)
老 舍 Lao She (1897 - 1966)
朱 自 清 Zhu Ziqing (1898 - 1948)
田 漢 Tian Han (1898 - 1968)
Feng Zhikai (1898-1975)
聞 一 多 Wen Yiduo (1899 - 1946)
Yu Pinbo (1900-1990)
冰心 Bing Xin (1900 - 1999)
巴 金 Ba Jin (1905 - )
沈 從 文 Shen Congwen (1902 - 1988)
曹 禺 Cao Yu (1905- )
錢鐘書 Qian Zhongshu (1910 - 1988)
He Qifang (1912-1977)
张爱玲 Eileen Chang (1920 - 1995)
汪曾祺 Wang Zengqi (1920 - 1997)
金庸 Jinyong (1924 - )
高行健 Gao Xingjian, Winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature 2000 (1940 - )
欿凝 Tie Ning (1957 - )
Overseas Chinese Literature
林海音 Lin Haiyin (1918 - 2001)
Qiu Xuxu Singapore
白先勇 Bai Xianyong (1937 - )
You Jin, Singapore
Chinese writers writing in English:
Maxine Hong Kingston
List of Chinese authors
Chinese classic texts
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